Chief of State (Supreme Leader) : Ayatollah Seyed Ali Khamenei (1989)
President: Mr Hassan Rouhani (2013)
Land area: 631,659 sq mi (1,635,999 sq km); total area: 636,293 sq mi (1,648,000 sq km)
Population (2014 est.): 77,840,713 (growth rate: 1.22%); birth rate: 18.23/1000; infant mortality rate: 39/1000; life expectancy: 70.89
Capital: Tehran, 7.304 million
Other large cities: Mashhad 2.713 million; Esfahan 1.781 million; Karaj 1.635 million; Tabriz 1.509 million; Shiraz 1.321 million (2011)
Geography: Iran, a Middle Eastern country south of the Caspian Sea and north of the Persian Gulf, is three times the size of Arizona. It shares borders with Iraq, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Armenia, Afghanistan, and Pakistan.
The Elburz Mountains in the north rise to 18,603 ft (5,670 m) at Mount Damavend. From northwest to southeast, the country is crossed by a desert 800 mi (1,287 km) long.
Government: Iran has been an Islamic Republic since the Pahlavi monarchy was overthrown on Feb. 11, 1979.
Economy: The economy of Iran is a mixed and transition economy with a large public sector. Some 60% of the economy is centrally planned. It is dominated by oil and gas production, although over 40 industries are directly involved in the Tehran Stock Exchange, one of the best performing exchanges in the world over the past decade. With 10% of the world's proven oil reserves and 15% of its gas reserves, Iran is considered an "energy superpower".
It is the world's eighteenth largest by purchasing power parity, and thirty-second by nominal gross domestic product. The country is a member of Next Eleven because of its high development potential. A unique feature of Iran's economy is the presence of large religious foundations called Bonyad, whose combined budgets represent more than 30% of central government spending.
Price controls and subsidies, particularly on food and energy, burden the economy. Contraband, administrative controls, widespread corruption, and other restrictive factors undermine private sector-led growth. The legislature in late 2009 passed the subsidy reform plan. This is the most extensive economic reform since the government implemented petrol rationing in 2007.
Most of the country's exports are oil and gas, accounting for a majority of government revenue in 2010. Oil export revenues enabled Iran to amass well over $100 billion in foreign exchange reserves as of 2010. Iran ranked first in scientific growth in the world in 2011 and has one of the fastest developments in telecommunication globally.
Due to its relative isolation from global financial markets, Iran was initially able to avoid recession in the aftermath of the 2008 global financial crisis. Yet, following increasingly stringent sanctions imposed by the international community as a result of the country's nuclear program, oil exports fell by half, allowing Iraqi oil exports to overtake Iran's for the first time since the 1980s. In September 2012, the Iranian Rial fell to a record low of 23,900 to the US dollar.
Exports aided self-sufficiency and domestic investment, although double-digit unemployment and inflation remain problematic. Iran's educated population, high human development, constrained economy and insufficient foreign and domestic investment prompted an increasing number of Iranians to seek overseas employment, resulting in a significant "brain drain".
More than two-thirds of the population (78 million people) are under the age of 30. Net primary school enrolment is almost 100%, suggesting a secondary "demographic boom".
Iran's national science budget in 2005 was about $900 million, roughly equivalent to the 1990 figure. By early 2000, Iran allocated around 0.4% of its GDP to research and development, ranking the country behind the world average of 1.4%. In 2009 the ratio of research to GDP was 0.87% against the government's medium-term target of 2.5%. Iran ranked first in scientific growth in the world in 2011 and 17th in science production in 2012.
According to The Economist, Iran ranked 39th in a list of industrialized nations, producing $23 billion of industrial products in 2008. Between 2008 and 2009 Iran moved to 28th from 69th place in annual industrial production growth because of its relative isolation from the 2008 international financial crisis.
In the early 21st century the service sector was the country's largest, followed by industry (mining and manufacturing) and agriculture. In 2008 GDP was estimated at $382.3 billion.
Nominal GDP is projected to double in the next five years. However, real GDP growth is expected to average 2.2% a year in 2012-16, insufficient to reduce the unemployment rate. Furthermore, international sanctions have damaged the economy by reducing oil exports by half. The Iranian Rial lost more than half of its value in 2012, directing Iran at import substitution industrialization and a resistive economy. According to the International Monetary Fund, Iran is a "transition economy", i.e., changing from a planned to a market economy.
The United Nations classifies Iran's economy as semi-developed. In 2014, Iran ranked 83rd in the World Economic Forum's analysis of the global competitiveness of 144 countries. Political, policy and currency stability are regarded as the most problematic factors in doing business in Iran. Difficulty in accessing financing is also a major concern, especially for small and medium enterprises. According to Goldman Sachs, Iran has the potential to become one of the world's largest economies in the 21st century.
اتاق بازرگانی و صنایع استرالیا و ایران
اکنون که با عنایت خداوند متعال توافق نامه تاریخی بین ایران عزیز و نمایندگان جهانی انجام گرفته که بازگشایی مستقیم تجارت بینالمللی با این کشور قدرتمند خاورمیانه را میسر خواهد ساخت، از شرکتها، صاحبان صنایع، صادر کنندگان، وارد کنندگان و کلیه تجّار علاقمند به عضویت دراین اتاق دعوت به عمل میآید